Researchers describe migraines as the brain over-responding to stimulus. Changes in serotonin, vasodilation, mast cells, inflammation, altered sodium, potassium, and ion levels have all been linked to migraines.
Specific genes linked to migraines include:
* BDNF rs6265 (T/T) increased risk of migraines [PMC5410590]
* MTHFR C677T rs1801133 (A/A) possibly increased risk of migraine [PMID 22375693; 23811028; 24183284]
* SLC6A4 rs2066713 (A/A) decreased risk of migraines [PMID 19845785]
* DAO codes for diamine oxidase, which breaks down histamine in the gut – rs10156191 (T/T) increased risk of migraines, especially in women [PMID 25612138]
* TNF rs1800629 (A/A) increased risk of migraines [Pain Medicine, Vol11, Issue 4, Apr 2010, p. 492–497] (increased inflammatory response)
* IL1A rs17561 (A/A) increased risk of migraines [Pain Medicine, Vol11, Issue 4, Apr 2010, p. 492–497]
Supplements: Tryptophan (to increase serotonin), Melatonin, Riboflavin, Aspirin, Magnesium.